Here are some of our news.

Press Release: RSETF is starting a new Read and Ride program!

The Royal School of Educational Foundation (RSETF) is starting a new Read and Ride program!

Students will read fun magazines and books either hard copy or on an iPad, while riding donated exercise bikes. Our goal is to show how much fun reading can be, while improving their health at the same time.

But RSETF needs your help.

  • We need stationary exercise bikes, preferably with attached bookstands.
  • We need iPads.
  • We need 10-20 music stands for the bikes that don’t have an attached bookstand.
  • We need children’s magazines and storybooks.

Please help us by either by donating one of the above requested items or one of the following:

  1. Email your friends, family and colleagues to see if they can donate anything.
  2. Ask your Church or Mosque to include our request in their bulletin or newsletter.
  3. Mention our request on your Facebook or other Social Media webpage to spread the word.

If you cannot bring your donated items to our School, we will have them picked up! You may donate in honor or memory of someone. Or, you might like to make a monetary contribution so we can purchase whatever you wish to sponsor. Our banking account information is: Royal School of Educational Therapy Foundation. Zenith Bank. Account Number 1014337782. For more information, feel free to visit the US-based Read and Ride program website for videos, photos, and data at: The RSETF website is or

Thanks for helping us!

Sensory processing disorder (II) By Dr. Badewa Adejugbe-Williams

A hyperesoponsive child’s brain registers sensations caused by stimuli intensely, that is, they are oversensitive to stimuli.'

These children are also referred to as “Sensory Avoiders” as they tend to have flee or fight response to stimuli.

For example, a child may be pained by the slightest touch, so the child would scream or pull away from touch.

They may be irritated by a particular texture or smell and would therefore avoid such.

A pin drop could sound like thunder, so, they would cover their ears.

Their eyesight could be so acute that that they could count every strand of hair on a person’s head or pore on a person’s face.
So, these children would avoid lights.

A slight stimuli such as touch, sound or light may have adverse effect on the child and cause the child undue pain which could cause the child to have a meltdown, which could be seen as misbehaving.

They could be overly aggressive, hit or bite, or be passive to avoid activities that are terrifying to them.

The main irregularities that occur in people with SPD based on affected senses are:

Auditory: hearing

  • Sensitive to noise volumes
  • Sensitive to certain noises such as a vacuum cleaner
  • Finds it difficult to work when noises are present
  • Covers ears when noises are present

Noisemaking Visual: sight

  • Sensitive to lighting
  • Sensitive to visual overload
  • May seek more visual pictures
  • Covering/closing eyes
  • Poor eye contact
  • Has difficulty following objects with eyes only, tends to turn head to look at things Gustatory: taste
  • A picky eater
  • Picky about food texture

May seek oral sensation by licking Olfactory: smell

  • Sensitive to smells
  • Easily notices smells
  • Holds nose
  • Purposely sniffs objects

Tactile: touch

  • Sensitive to things touching them, such as a tag on a shirt
  • May seek sensation by pinching or biting one self
  • Touches everything • Constantly puts things in their mouth
  • May not be able to differentiate temperature
  • Doesn’t understand painful injuries Vestibular: tells the relation of the body to the ground, what speed we are moving and in what direction
  • Hypoactive or underactive
  • Craves movement
  • Enjoys swinging, rocking, and spinning
  • Wants to constantly move
  • Wiggles in their seat Proprioceptive: the awareness of one’s body parts in relation to one another and how they are moving
  • Poor fine/gross motor skills
  • Poor motor planning skills
  • Are clumsy/ walk into things 
  • Have difficulty balancing Intervention Several research studies have addressed various methods to alter the maladaptive behaviors of persons with sensory processing challenges.

These include prescription medications (which do not cure SPD), vitamins and minerals, diets, psychotherapy, auditory integration therapy, visual integration therapy, sensory integration techniques, cognitive therapy, animal therapy and more.
Some have been labelled as bogus and said to give g false hopes (Hyatt, Stephenson, and Carter, 2009) even though some people might have reported positive effects from some of the bogus claims.

A school of thought amongst parents has been, ‘if it works for one, it may just work for my child’.

Prescription drugs do not cure.

They either mask or suppress symptoms (Rimland, 1993).

Rimland indicated that vitamins, especially B6 as it is essential for brain functions, and Magnesium are common choices.

Parents are advised to eliminate processed sugar, processed and packaged foods that contain phosphates and other additives from children’s diets.

They are further advised to feed their children foods that have been organically grown and unmodified.

Sensory Integration Therapy (SIT), the therapeutic approach popularized by Ayres in the early 1970s, according to Shuman (1996) has been found to help comatose patients with remarkable results.

SIT helps to bring affected person up to experience skipped developmental milestones, which in turn helps the brain to organize itself.

A child with SPD would need Sensory Integration Therapy by a trained Occupational Therapist (OT) who would provide appropriate sensory input to assist the child in tempering information correctly and in developing strategies to compensate for SPD limitations.

SIT that involves all senses is used to help a child maximize daily functioning skills, cognitive development, appropriate social skills and improved social emotional state.

The OT would need to check if the child is hyporesponsive, hyperesponsive or both in reactions or non-reactions to stimuli.

The OT would give parents a questionnaire to determine which area(s) the child falls into.

A lot of children with sensory disorders have both (hypo and hyper) depending on the stimuli.

Resultantly, the OT would give appropriate recommendations/ interventions based on parent’s responses on given questionnaire.

Dr. Badewa T. Adejugbe-Williams (Ed.D), is an Educational Therapist and Founder of the Royal School of Educational Therapy Foundation in Abuja, FCT

Sensory processing disorder By Dr. Badewa Adejugbe-Williams

There are some children who just do not sit still and/or sustain attention for long periods of time. They may be seen jumping all over furniture, covering their ears when others are talking or while the TV or music is on. They may fall down often and/or bump into objects, or refuse to play on some playground equipment. They are sensitive to some food items, clothing, light, touch, sounds, and are usually highly distracted, impulsive and/or clumsy amongst others. These are often characteristics of Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD). Parents, caregivers, educators are often perplexed as to how to intervene. This article aims to define SPD and detail intervention strategies that are informed by Sensory Integration Therapy.

Sensory Integration, a theory developed by A. Jean Ayres, is “the neurological process that organizes sensation from one’s own body and from the environment and makes it possible to use the body effectively within the environment” (Ayres, 1972, P. 11). It is also defined as “a neurological process of organizing sensory inputs for function in daily life”, that is, the brain receives information and sends signals to the rest of the body as to how to respond to the information received.
Sensory integration is a normal body process that starts developing from the womb and everyone has it. However, if hindered, it could lead to Sensory Processing Disorder. Sensory Processing Disorder, also referred to as Sensory Integration Disorder (SID), has been described as the brain’s inability to recognize, interpret, categorize, and respond “appropriately” to incoming sensory input or normal experiences. It is a neurological disorder in which the brain misinterprets the signals sent from the senses and the environment.

There are three major areas of SPD. They are sensory modulation disorder, sensory-based motor disorder and sensory discrimination disorder. Sensory modulation disorder is the inability to effectively regulate how one is influenced by several sensory inputs. Sensory-based motor disorder is a condition that affects a child’s fine and gross motor skills. Sensory discrimination disorder is when the child has a challenge recognizing and processing visual or auditory information. Some people with SPD may have only one of their senses affected while others may have combination of senses affected by SPD.

The causes of SPD are generally unknown. What is known is that there is a discrepancy in the sensory integration process of a person with SPD and environmental and genetics could be factors that contribute to SPD. Some researchers have indicated SPD could be hereditary, as a parent of a child with SPD would often have SPD his or herself. Another factor identified by researchers is environmental. SPD is common with premature babies and babies with neonatal abstinence syndrome (drug babies). Children with Nonverbal Learning Disability (NVLD), Auditory Processing Disorder (APD), Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) tend to have SPD. A child with SPD or comorbid disorder such as ASD and AD/HD could display certain behaviours in response to sensory stimuli that due to taste, sight, sound, or touch as SPD is affected by the senses.

The commonly known human senses (classic senses) are tactile (touch), auditory (sound/hearing), visual (sight/seeing), gustatory (taste) and olfactory (smell). Other senses that have been identified and that are major malefactors in SPD are proprioceptive (movement of joints, ligaments and muscles), vestibular (movement and balance that involves the pull of gravity) systems. The Vestibular receptors, which are located in the inner ear, are what tell a person he or she is moving in space, even with closed eyes. If the proprioceptive and vestibular systems do not work effectively, the child would have sensory integration disorder.
Children affected by SPD may have difficulty processing and integrating information from one or more of their senses and this may cause the individual some distress, discomfort, pain, and confusion. Some children’s eyesight may be so acute that they may be able to see the “hair on a person’s head”. Some have heightened sound awareness that normal sounds may sound thunderous in their ears and may react violently to loud noise. Sensory related misconducts are often aggravated by frustrations. They may throw tantrums, hit, talk to self, and injure self and/or others. They may be seen engaging in repetitive behaviours, spinning, rocking, or flapping their arms among others. Some of these features may also change as the children get older.

Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD), the brain’s inability to recognize, interpret, categorize, and respond “appropriately” to incoming sensory input or normal experiences causes many challenges for the children, parents, caregivers, teachers, and therapists. Some of the challenges faced by the children include coordination problems, poor attention span, lack of focus, academic challenges, challenges with motor-development, hyperactivity, challenges with self-care, lack of or low self-esteem, poor social skills, behaviour problems and oversensitivity or under sensitivity or both to stimuli. The children may be hyper or hypo sensitive to certain stimuli. A child who displays hypersensitivity is overly sensitive to stimuli whereas a child who displays hyposensitivity is under-reactive/under-responsive. These children have difficulty with self-regulation. Self-Regulation is the skill people use to master and filter their thoughts and impulses to resist temptations, distractions and habits and pause to think before taking action at any moment.

A hyporesponsive child also known as “Sensory Seekers” have difficulty responding to certain stimuli as the brain fails to register the stimuli regardless of the input. These children crave sensory stimulation and may be seen acting in ways that are dangerous and self-injurious. Example, the child may touch flame and not feel the burn or may not be bothered by loud music or would seek to be in loud environments. The child would be full of energy and be constantly moving around seeking the right stimuli and not sit still, instead, the child would move around touching or playing with objects, rocking on his/her feet, eating whatever is seen either edible or not. The child may be clumsy and often bumps into objects or walls.

Dr. Badewa T. Adejugbe-Williams (Ed.D), is an Educational Therapist and Founder of the Royal School of Educational Therapy Foundation in Abuja, FCT